Friday, April 5
Welcome and Conference Introduction
David M. Kennedy
Founding Co-Director, Bill Lane Center for the American West
Donald J. McLachlan Professor of History Emeritus
A founding co-director of the Bill Lane Center for the American West, David Kennedy is the Donald J. McLachlan Professor of History Emeritus at Stanford University. Professor Kennedy received the Dean’s Award for Distinguished Teaching in 1988. He was awarded the Pulitzer Prize in history in 1999 for Freedom From Fear: The American People in Depression and War. He received an A.B. in History from Stanford University and an M.A. and Ph.D. from Yale University. Reflecting his interdisciplinary training in American Studies, which combined the fields of history, literature, and economics, Professor Kennedy’s scholarship is notable for its integration of economic and cultural analysis with social and political history. His 1970 book, Birth Control in America: The Career of Margaret Sanger, embraced the medical, legal, political, and religious dimensions of the subject and helped to pioneer the emerging field of women’s history. Over Here: The First World War and American Society (1980) used the history of American involvement in World War I to analyze the American political system, economy, and culture in the early twentieth century. Freedom From Fear: The American People in Depression and War (1999) recounts the history of the United States in the two great crises of the Great Depression and World War II.
Assistant Vice Provost & Executive Director of Haas Center for Public Service
Thomas Schnaubelt began his tenure at the Haas Center for Public Service at Stanford University in April 2009 and has been actively involved in developing innovative community engagement programs in higher education settings for nearly two decades. Prior to assuming the role of Executive Director at the Haas Center for Public Service, Tom served as Dean for Community Engagement and Civic Learning at the University of Wisconsin-Parkside and was the founding Executive Director of Wisconsin Campus Compact, where he provided leadership for a coalition of thirty-four college and university presidents and chancellors committed to the civic purposes of higher education. Beyond California, his experiences span broad geographic, disciplinary, and institutional boundaries, including positions in three states (Michigan, Mississippi, and Wisconsin) as well as consulting roles with institutions across the country. While at UW-Parkside, Schnaubelt was responsible for the development of two community-based environmental education centers, a community-wide mentoring campaign, and overall financial and human resource management of a comprehensive outreach and engagement center. Another of his innovations includes the establishment of the Mississippi Center for Community and Civic Engagement, a statewide center based at the University of Southern Mississippi designed to foster and support educational partnerships between K-12, postsecondary, and community-based organizations. Tom began his career in higher education as a service-learning coordinator at the University of Southern Mississippi.
Schnaubelt is an experienced teacher, having developed seminars and courses ranging from physics, community-based learning, national service, education, and social foundations and policy at the University of Wisconsin-Parkside, the University of Michigan, and the University of Southern Mississippi. His efforts have led to being appointed as a Wisconsin Idea Fellow and a Higher Education Award for Leadership in National Service, and he led the effort for UW-Parkside to be recognized by the Carnegie Foundation Community Engagement Classification. In addition to serving as Associate Vice Provost and Executive Director of the Haas Center for Public Service, Tom serves as a Resident Fellow in Branner Hall, Stanford’s public service-themed dorm for upper-class students. As such, Tom and his family live in residence with 126 undergraduates and help shape a living-learning community using service as a central theme. Schnaubelt received a Doctor of Philosophy in Higher Education Administration, focusing in Educational Leadership, from the University of Mississippi in 2001. He also obtained a Masters of Arts in Education, concentrating in Cross Cultural Research, Comparative Methodology, and Service Learning, from the University of Michigan, and a Bachelor of Science in Physics from the University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point.
As a correspondent on NPR’s national desk, Kirk Siegler covers the urban-rural divide in America. A beat exploring the intersection between urban and rural life, culture, and politics, Siegler has recently brought listeners and readers to a timber town in Idaho that lost its last sawmill just days before the 2016 election, as well as to small rural towns in Nebraska where police are fighting an influx in recreational marijuana coming from nearby Colorado cities. Based at NPR West’s studios in Culver City, CA, but frequently roaming the country, Siegler’s reporting has also focused on the far-reaching economic impacts of the drought in the West while explaining the broader, national significance to many of the region’s complex and bitter disputes around land use. His assignments have brought listeners to the heart of anti-government standoffs in Oregon and Nevada, including a rare interview with recalcitrant rancher Cliven Bundy in 2014.
Siegler also contributes extensively to the network’s breaking news coverage. In 2015, he was awarded an International Reporting Project fellowship from Johns Hopkins University to report on health and development in Nepal. While en route to the country in April, the worst magnitude earthquake to hit the region in more than 80 years struck. Siegler was one of the first foreign journalists to arrive in Kathmandu and helped lead NPR’s coverage of the immediate aftermath of the deadly quake. He also filed in-depth reports focusing on the humanitarian disaster and challenges of bringing relief to some of the Nepal’s far-flung rural villages.Prior to joining NPR, Siegler spent seven years reporting from Colorado, where he became a familiar voice to NPR listeners reporting on politics, water, and the state’s ski industry from Denver for NPR Member Station KUNC. He got his start in political reporting covering the Montana Legislature for Montana Public Radio. Apart from a brief stint working as a waiter in Sydney, Australia, Siegler has spent most of his adult life living in the West. He grew up near Missoula, Montana, and received a journalism degree from the University of Colorado at Boulder.
Panel 1: Shifting Economics and Demographics: the Rise of the Destination West
University of Utah
Patrick Shea has worn many impressive hats during his career. He’s a lawyer in private practice today in Salt Lake City, with an emphasis on emerging biotech companies. He is an associate research professor of biology at the University of Utah, where he is teaching a graduate seminar on the biology of an urban stream. He has been Director of the U.S Bureau of Land Management and Deputy Assistant Secretary for Land and Minerals Management. He has worked with the Senate Intelligence Committee and Foreign Relations Committee, as well as the President’s Commission on Aviation Safety, Security, and Air Traffic Control. He holds degrees from Harvard Law, Oxford, and Stanford.
Policy, Government Relations, & External Affairs
Western Rural Development Center, Utah State University
Dr. Don Albrecht began his role as the Director of the Western Rural Development Center in July 2008. He received a B.S in Forestry, an M.S. in Sociology from Utah State University and a Ph.D. in Rural Sociology from Iowa State University. He then served as a member of the faculty at Texas A&M University for 27 years where he worked in the Department of Rural Sociology. He has researched and written extensively on the issues confronting the communities and residents of rural America. Among the issues explored are natural resource concerns, economic restructuring, demographic trends, poverty, inequality, and education. His most recent book publications include Our Energy Future: Socioeconomic Implications and Policy Options for Rural America (2014), Rethinking Rural: Global Community and Economic Development in the Small Town West (2014), Rural Housing and Economic Development (2018), Adapting to Climate Change at the Local Level (2019) and Building a Resilient 21st Century Economy for Rural America (2019)
External Affairs Associate
The Nature Conservancy
Megan Nelson is the External Affairs Associate for the Utah Chapter of The Nature Conservancy. She has worked on western natural resource, environmental, and public land issues for over ten years as an attorney, environmental planner, and public lands consultant. In her current role, she develops partnerships with relevant agencies, conservation organizations, and private entities and works on state and national policy to conserve the lands and waters on which all life depends. Before joining the Conservancy, she developed federal land management plans, facilitated planning efforts, authored federal legislation, managed NEPA for federal agencies, and advocated for conservation. Throughout her career, she has most enjoyed collaboration and working closely with diverse groups to find common ground. Megan holds a Juris Doctor and Natural Resources Law and Policy Certificate from the University of Colorado Law School. She is a seventh generation Utahn and always feels a little off if she can’t see mountains.
Gardner Policy Institute, University of Utah
Jennifer Leaver is a senior research analyst at the University of Utah's Kem C. Gardner Policy Institute (GPI) that specializes in local, regional, and statewide travel and tourism research. Leaver authors a variety of reports, research briefs, and blogs related to Utah's rural and urban visitor economies. Prior to GPI, Leaver worked as a policy specialist, research consultant, and information analyst at Utah’s Department of Human Services. Her master's thesis, "Where Old West Meets New West: confronting conservation, conflict, and change on Utah's last frontier," explores Boulder and Escalante residents' clashing values following President Clinton's Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument designation. Leaver received her B.A. in English from the University of Puget Sound and her M.A. in Applied Anthropology from Oregon State University.
Panel 2: Newcomers and Old-Timers: Cultural Clash and Amenity Migrants
Friday, 3:15-4:45 pm
Ray, Quinney & Nebeker
Katie graduated from Stanford University and then earned her J.D. from Stanford Law School, going on to clerk on the U.S. 10th Circuit Court of Appeals before beginning her law career at Ray, Quinney & Nebeker. Eccles currently serves on the Board of Trustees Executive Committee at the University of Utah and as a director of the Nora Eccles Treadwell Foundation, the Spencer F. and Cleone P. Eccles Family Foundation, and the Eccles family-owned Goldener Hirsch Inn. In 2015, she received the American Cancer Society’s Sword of Hope Award recognizing her service as chair of the Hope Lodge Board to fund, design and construct the Salt Lake City Hope Lodge, which provides free lodging for cancer patients during treatment.
Associate Professor of Sociology
Dr. Justin Farrell is a professor and author at Yale University. A native of Cheyenne, Wyoming, his research aims to solve problems that plague rural communities and the natural environment in the American West. His research employs a mixture of methods from large-scale computational text analysis, qualitative & ethnographic fieldwork, network science, and machine learning. His published books and articles have won national awards, covered by major media outlets, and used on the floor of the U.S. Senate. The Economist magazine heralded his first book on environmental conflict as “the most original political book of early 2015.” At Yale he teaches courses on environmental conflict, the American West, and leads an annual field course to western Wyoming. In 2014 he launched the Yale North American West Initiative.
I am an Ogden native who studied political science and journalism at Weber State university and have been working in the field of journalism for more than 30 years. Writing has always been my passion. For the last 10 years at the Deseret News, I have been covering energy, the environment and issues related to rural life. I am the recipient of multiple state and regional awards in categories that include spot news, best enterprise environmental reporting and best beat reporting in agriculture. I live in rural Hooper, Utah, which is experiencing the pains of rapid development. My little slice of life includes a horse, pony, chickens, two Irish Wolfhounds and my husband.
Save Our Canyons
Carl Fisher is the executive director of the Salt Lake City based non-profit Save Our Canyons. The organization was founded in 1972 in response to the opening of Snowbird Ski Resort in Little Cottonwood Canyon over concerns it would degrade the wildness and beauty of the Wasatch Mountains bringing pressures of tourism and inducing population growth. The non-profit not only works to protect public lands, but also works on state, county and local land use plans and ordinances to protect the resources in the Wasatch Range, all the while leading stewardship and education projects throughout the region. Carl is a native born Utahn, earned a BS in Geography and BS in Environmental Studies from the University of Utah. In addition to his work at Save Our Canyons, he also serves on numerous state and local boards working to protect and steward prized lands throughout the region and the opportunities for the community to bring nature closer to their lives. He lives in Holladay with his wife and two kids.
Keynote: Greg Thompson, University of Utah
Friday, 6:00-7:30 pm
Vice Chair, Advisory Council for the Bill Lane Center for the American West
C. Hope Eccles is a lifelong westerner with deep family roots in the Intermountain West. The Eccles family has been integral in the development of this region since the 19th century, organizing many of the area's key companies in a wide range of businesses. Hope and her family have generations of love for and commitment to the West and the western way of life. Hope oversees her family’s luxury hotel, the Goldener Hirsch Inn, in Deer Valley, Utah. She has been actively involved in the community for many years and particularly in the area of education. Since 2008, Hope has served on the Advisory Council for Stanford University’s Bill Lane Center for the American West. She is currently a member of the University of Utah Hospital Board, and has previously served on the University of Utah's Board of Trustees. Hope was the Deputy for Higher Education for Utah Governor Jon Huntsman. She is a member of the Board of the Marriner S. Eccles Foundation. Hope is a graduate of Stanford University; she received a JD from the University of Utah and an MBA from Columbia University. She is married to Randal Quarles, Founder of The Cynosure Group and current Vice Chair for Supervision of the Federal Reserve System. They reside in Salt Lake City with their three children, Randy, Spencer and Hopie.
Associate Dean, Special Collections
Adjunct Assistant Professor, History
Librarian, Marriott Library
University of Utah
Gregory C. Thompson, Ph.D. is the Associate Dean of the University of Utah’s J. Willard Marriott Library for Special Collections and an Adjunct Assistant Professor of History. He received his Bachelor of Science degree from Colorado State University (1965), Bachelor of Arts degree from Fort Lewis College (1967), and his Master of Science (1971) and Doctoral (1981) degrees from the University of Utah. From 1967 to 1983, Greg, a historian of the American West, served on the staff of the University of Utah’s American West Center. During this time, he worked with and helped to develop tribal histories, tribal archives and oral history collections for fifteen tribes across the Western United States. His own research focused on the Ute tribes of Colorado and Utah and he served as a consultant to the San Juan County School District (Utah) and the Southern Ute Tribe of Ignacio, Colorado. Dr. Thompson has published several monographs on the Ute tribe including Southern Ute Lands, 1848-1899: The Creation of a Reservation (1972); The Southern Utes: A Tribal History (1972); and edited, with Floyd A. O’Neil, A History of the Indians of the United States: A Syllabus (1979).
In the 1980’s Greg co-founded, with the late Sue Raemer, the Marriott Library’s Utah Ski Archives Program. He grew up in Durango, Colorado and as a youngster skied and competed in Colorado and New Mexico. An original member of the Alf Engen Ski Museum Foundation Board and the Board of Trustees, Greg has been involved with skiing since the early 1950s as a participant and historian. He has lectured widely and published numerous articles on the history of skiing in the Intermountain area. His latest publication, with Alan K. Engen, First Tracks: A Century of Skiing (2001) focuses on the history of skiing in Utah. Greg is also the general editor for the Tanner Trust Publication Series, Utah, The Mormons, and the West. The latest publication in the series is David Bigler’s book, Confessions of a Revisionist Historian (2015). Greg and his wife, Karen, live in Salt Lake City with their two children, Anna and Patrick.
Saturday, April 6
Public Opinion in the Amenity West
Professor of Political Science
Senior Fellow, Stanford Institute for Economic Policy Research
David Brady began his teaching career at Kansas State University in 1970, from there moved to Houston, Texas, where he taught at both the University of Houston and Rice University, where in 1981 he was named Autry Distinguished Professor of Social Science. In 1986 he moved to Stanford University with a joint appointment in the Graduate School of Business and Political Science. While at Stanford he has served as Associate Dean for Academic affairs in the GSB and as Vice Provost for Distance Learning at Stanford. He has twice been a fellow at the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences and was elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1987. He presently holds the Bowen H. and Janice Arthur McCoy Professorship in Ethics at the Business School and is Deputy Director of the Hoover Institution.
Professor Brady’s teaching focuses on non-market strategy for corporations and ethical applications in building quality companies. In addition to his Business School teaching he also teaches an undergraduate course in public policy. He won the Dinkelspiel Award for service to undergraduates, the Richard Lyman Prize for service to alumni,the Bob Davies award and The Jaedicke silver cup from the GSB and the first Phi Beta Kappa Teaching Award given at Stanford. Brady has been on continuing appointment at Stanford University since 1987. He was associate dean from 1997 to 2001 at Stanford University; a fellow at the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences from 1985 to 1986 and again in 2001–2; and the Autrey Professor at Rice University, 1980–87.
Panel 3: Public Policy and the Political Implications of Rural Migration
Saturday, 9:00-10:30 am
Spence and Cleone Eccles Family Director,
Bill Lane Center for the American West
Charles Louis Ducommun Professor in Humanities and Sciences
The distinguished political scientist Bruce E. Cain is the Spence and Cleone Eccles Family Director of the Bill Lane Center for the American West, and Charles Louis Ducommun Professor in Humanities and Sciences. Professor Cain succeeded the Center's founding faculty co-directors, David M. Kennedy and Richard White. Bruce Cain is an expert in U.S. politics, and particularly the politics of California and the American West. A pioneer in computer-assisted redistricting, he is a prominent scholar of elections, political regulation, and the relationships between lobbyists and elected officials. Prior to joining Stanford, Professor Cain was Director of the Institute of Governmental Studies at UC Berkeley from 1990-2007 and Executive Director of the UC Washington Center from 2005-2012. He was elected the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 2000 and has won awards for his research (Richard F. Fenno Prize, 1988), teaching (Caltech 1988 and UC Berkeley 2003) and public service (Zale Award for Outstanding Achievement in Policy Research and Public Service, 2000). He is currently working on state regulatory processes and stakeholder involvement in the areas of water, energy and the environment. Professor Cain holds a BA from Bowdoin College, a B. Philosophy from Oxford University, and a PhD from Harvard University.
Director of the Environmental Dispute Resolution Program in the Wallace Stegner Center,
Research Associate Professor
SJ Quinney College of Law, University of Utah
Danya Rumore, Ph.D., is the Director of the Environmental Dispute Resolution Program in the Wallace Stegner Center and a Research Associate Professor in the S.J. Quinney College of Law at the University of Utah. She is also a Research Assistant Professor in the University of Utah Department of City and Metropolitan Planning. She teaches courses in negotiation and dispute resolution and is a research affiliate of the University of Utah Center for Ecological Planning and Design and Global Change and Sustainability Center.
Danya’s work and research focus on supporting collaborative decision-making and stakeholder engagement in the context of science-intensive environmental issues and complex public policy challenges. She is currently developing an initiative to better understand the unique planning challenges facing small communities in gateway and natural amenity regions in the Mountain West, and to provide planning support and capacity building for these regions.
Danya completed her doctorate in Environmental Policy and Planning at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, where she was the Assistant Director of the MIT Science Impact Collaborative and the Project Manager for the New England Climate Adaptation Project. She also holds a Master of Science in Environmental Management and Geography from the University of Auckland, New Zealand, and a Bachelor of Science in Environmental Science and Natural Resource Economics from Oregon State University. Prior to joining the University of Utah, Danya worked with a range of organizations, including the Consensus Building Institute, the Program on Negotiation at Harvard Law School, the New Zealand Centre for Sustainable Cities, and the Manomet Center for Conservation Sciences. She has authored multiple academic articles and is a co-author of the book Managing Climate Risks in Coastal Communities: Strategies for Engagement, Readiness, and Adaptation.
Destination Development Specialist
Utah Office of Tourism
Flint is a destination development specialist with the Utah Office of Tourism, a new position designed to assist small and rural local governments develop the amenities, infrastructure, and leadership necessary to become welcoming destinations for visitors. Flint previously worked for the State's Division of Housing and Community Development where he conducted rural research, provided local government planning assistance, and supported the division's infrastructure funding programs. Flint graduated with a master's degree in public administration from the Romney Institute of Public Management at Brigham Young University.
Utah Governor’s Office of Rural Development
Nan is part of the Office of Rural Development at the Governor’s Office of Economic Development (GOED), and she works in the rural GOED location in Wayne County (200 miles from SLC!). Her focus at GOED is outreach and marketing for the Office of Rural Development and their 8 programs as well as coordinating Utah’s Business Resource Centers throughout the state.
She’s had many different jobs in the economic development/tourism industry and has learned from all of them, loved most of them, and feels fortunate to be able to help foster economic development in the number one state for business – Utah! Nan and her husband James live in Torrey and share their home with 2 wiener dogs and a bunch of cats.
Utah Tourism Industry Association, Executive Director
Wayne County Economic Development/Wayne County Travel Council, Executive Director
Capitol Reef Media & Wayne Theatre, Owner
Western Leisure, Inc., Vice President of Marketing & Sales
Snowbird Ski & Summer Resort, National Sales Manager
Salt Lake Convention & Visitors Bureau, Director of Tourism
American Bus Association, Director of Meeting Planning
Panel 4: The Environmental Considerations of Amenity Migration: Development and Land Use Policy in the Rural West
Saturday, 10:45am-12:15 pm
Professor, Evans School of Public Policy and Governance
Associate Dean for Academic Affairs
University of Washington
Craig Thomas joined the UW Evans School of Public Policy and Governance faculty in 2006, after serving on the faculty at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst. Thomas teaches courses in policy processes, environmental policy, performance management, and research design. His current research analyzes collaboration among public, private, and nonprofit partners as an alternative form of governance to centralized planning and command-and-control regulation. He also studies a variety of environmental topics, including climate change, marine fisheries, habitat conservation planning, and watershed management. He is the author of Bureaucratic Landscapes: Interagency Cooperation and the Preservation of Biodiversity (MIT Press, 2003), and co-author of Collaborative Environmental Management: What Roles for Government? (RFF Press, 2004). He has also published numerous articles in interdisciplinary journals, and is former editor of the Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory. Prior to being a professor, Thomas was an administrative analyst for the University of California, a consultant to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Department of Energy, and worked in staff positions for environmental nonprofits in Washington, D.C. Thomas holds a Ph.D. in Political Science and an MPP from the University of California, Berkeley. He also holds a BA in International Studies from the University of Washington. He is the 1998 recipient of the American Political Science Association's Leonard D. White Award, which recognizes the best dissertation in the field of public administration.
Director of Conservation Programs, Utah Chapter
The Nature Conservancy
Elizabeth Kitchens joined The Nature Conservancy in 2002 as Senior Attorney. In 2013, she was selected for the position of Associate General Counsel for the Western U.S. Division. As in-house counsel, Elizabeth provided legal support on numerous TNC projects across the Conservancy, including as lead attorney for a landmark $130 million land acquisition in Montana and Washington completed in 2015. In 2016, Elizabeth turned her focus to Utah as Director of Conservation Programs for the Utah Chapter of TNC. In this role, Elizabeth oversees the Utah Chapter’s land and water conservation projects and develops strategies to more effectively address growing challenges to preserving nature, for nature’s sake and for people. Elizabeth and members of her staff are increasingly involved in managing the interface between conservation and recreation as TNC’s land holdings are often intermixed with public lands used for recreation. As a science-based, non-confrontational organization, TNC strives to build awareness of the environmental impacts of recreational expansion and development and seeks practical solutions so that both nature and people can thrive.
Prior to her career with The Nature Conservancy, Elizabeth was an attorney at Parsons Behle & Latimer in Salt Lake City, where her practice focused on complex mining and real estate transactions.
Elizabeth was born and raised in rural New Mexico. She received her undergraduate degree from the University of Colorado at Colorado Springs and her law degree from the University of Denver. She lives in the Sugarhouse area of Salt Lake City and gets outside to enjoy Nature as often as she can, whether in Utah or traveling internationally.
U.S. Attorney's Office for the District of Oregon
Steve Odell is an Assistant U.S. Attorney for the District of Oregon with nearly three decades of experience in resolving a broad array of legal and policy issues involving the environment, natural resources, and energy across all three branches of the federal government as well as in the private sector. In his current job, he represents the United States in court in matters involving virtually the entire panoply of natural-resource uses and values, including forestry, grazing, recreation, wilderness, water quality and infrastructure, and energy generation and transmission. He also formulated a strategy for his office to stay abreast of the principal issues and concerns of rural communities in Oregon pursuant to which the U.S. Attorney has visited officials and leaders in the state’s 17 counties containing a third or more of federal land.
Following a clerkship with the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit, Mr. Odell began his litigation career as an honors attorney in the Environment and Natural Resources Division of the U.S. Justice Department. He has also worked in the Congress, having served as senior counsel to the Senate Environment and Public Works Committee and as an intern to Sen. Mark O. Hatfield.
Before assuming his current position, Mr. Odell was Executive Director of the Regional Ecosystem Office, an interagency office that facilitates enhanced collaboration and cooperation among the various Federal agencies that have duties or authorities related to implementation of the Northwest Forest Plan.
Finally, it is worth noting at this conference in particular that he is a graduate of both Stanford Law School and Stanford University, and the proud dad of three kids (Juliett, Charis, and John), who not only bring him great joy, but keep him honest – and humble!
Emmett Interdisciplinary Program in Environment and Resources (E-IPER)
Briana is a PhD Candidate in the Emmett Interdisciplinary Program in Environment and Resources (E-IPER)at Stanford University. She studies land change and governance using methods from geography, ecology, sociology and political science. Her dissertation research investigates how and why livestock grazing is changing in Idaho’s High Divide landscape in the context of an ongoing rural transition, the impact of those changes on ecosystems, and the responses from communities. Prior to graduate school, Briana worked on tropical land use and forest research and policy as a research associate at Earth Innovation Institute. Previously Briana ran operations at a natural food manufacturing company and farmed vegetables in Morgan Hill, California. She holds a B.S. and M.S. from Stanford’s Earth Systems Program.