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Strawberry Fields Forever? Thirsty Baja Turning to Seawater to Grow Lucrative Crop

Jul 13 2018

An arid region 180 miles south of Tijuana is the crossroads where strawberries, economics, and groundwater meet. Baja usually gets less than three inches of rain annually, and there is a multi-year drought. But strawberries grown for export have become so valuable, farmers keep trying to grow more, and are allowed to use more groundwater than nature replenishes.

Strawberries under cultivation – and under wraps – by the Pacific coast outsude of Emiliano Zapata, Baja California.

Strawberries under cultivation – and under wraps – by the Pacific coast of Baja California Alan Harper via Flickr

By Felicity Barringer

For Americans, what probably matters most in this story are the strawberries. For most Mexicans in the northern Baja peninsula, what matters is the robust economy strawberries bring. For some, what matters most is the steady loss of the fresh groundwater that makes strawberries possible here.

Average Annual Precipitation in Mexico

The San Quintín valley, an arid region 180 miles south of Tijuana, is the crossroads where strawberries, economics, and groundwater meet. The average rainfall in northern Baja is less than three inches annually; there is a multi-year drought. For a century, groundwater irrigated local crops. But strawberries grown for export have become so valuable, farmers keep trying to grow more, and are allowed to use more groundwater than nature replenishes.

Visitors can see this meeting place while riding along the two-lane highway through the valley towns. These sprawl at crazy angles in what academics call “anarchic growth.” Each year brings more ramshackle homes, where workers live. Also more cell towers, gas stations, condos, and places to eat. Seemingly endless strawberry fields surround town centers, which are continuously under construction. Old American school buses shuttle workers to and from the fields; trucks carry lumber and cement to construction sites, all amid clouds of dust.

Bus delivering workers to the fields; right, pickers in the strawberry fields

Bus delivering workers to the fields; right, pickers in the strawberry fields, April 2018. Felicity Barringer

That is the picture today. What will it be tomorrow? Will the engine of strawberries continue powering the economy? Or will it run out of gas — or, more accurately, fresh groundwater?

Sárah Eva Martínez, dean of academic affairs at the Colegio de la Frontera Norte (COLEF), a small college based in Tijuana whose researchers have done meticulous studies of agriculture, water, and energy in the valley’s 1,437 square miles, speculated that the strawberry fields may not last. The government-supported system of overdrafting groundwater is “not working, and they will get to a critical point when they see that they just can’t go on any longer,” she said.

Growing Strawberries in Baja Squeezes Out Groundwater – and Stresses Residents

Produce has long been cultivated in the Mediterranean climate of the northern Baja California peninsula. In recent years, though, the growth of lucrative and water-intensive crops like strawberries and tomatoes has badly depleted aquifers in areas like the San Quintín Valley.

A look at Baja’s agricultural heartland and the communities affected by the strawberry boom.

Overview map showing Baja California and strawberry-growing region around the San Quintin Valley.

Groundwater Under Stress in the San Quintín Area

* Groundwater withdrawals in acre-feet; ** Net water loss after rainwater recharge; *** Designation by CONAGUA, Mexican national water authority;

Sources: Hugo Riemann, Colegio de la Frontera Norte (COLEF); CONAGUA, INEGI, ESRI Earth Imagery, Natural Earth Data
Geoff McGhee/Bill Lane Center for the American West, Stanford University
What happens in the next decade or two will decide whether the San Quintín valley towns begin to resemble Colorado ghost towns whose mines played out, or continue to expand as farmers use strawberry profits to pay the immense energy cost of treating seawater.

Is Treated Seawater an Answer to the Water Shortage?

There is another possibility: using water from the Pacific Ocean, after taking out the salt. What happens in the next decade or two will decide whether the San Quintín valley towns begin to resemble Colorado ghost towns whose mines played out, or continue to expand as farmers use strawberry profits to pay the immense energy cost of treating seawater.

In the health-conscious world of 2018 America, strawberries are the agricultural equivalent of gold. Americans in 2012 ate an average of 7.9 pounds of strawberries, up from 4.9 pounds in the year 2000. The vast majority grow in California and Florida, but about 14 percent come from Mexico. Of these, 49 percent come from the San Quintín valley. Meeting the demand for the berries has made Baja agriculture very lucrative.

In 1987, the first year of winter berry production, roughly 9,000 tons of berries were produced in the San Quintin valley in the winter, COLEF researchers calculate; in 2013, the local farms produced 120,600 tons. In 2013, winter berries had a minimum value of 1.88 billion pesos — about $145 million in 2013 dollars.

Chart showing growth of Mexican strawberry exports to the US since 1980.

Strawberries are the most lucrative crop. Still tomatoes, also grown for export, cover almost twice as many acres. The valley’s intensive agriculture depends on the four aquifers under towns like Camalú, Vicente Guerrero, and San Quintín. All four are overdrafted annually, according to CONAGUA, the national water agency. The hydraulics of aquifers near the coast ensure that over-pumping leads to saltwater intrusion, as the weight of fresh groundwater becomes unequal to the weight of the underground reaches of the Pacific Ocean. The saltier the water, the worse for strawberries, which are stunted and less tasty. As pumping exceeds the rate of natural recharge, the groundwater basins have gotten saltier and saltier.

“Intensification of horticultural production has also contributed to a dramatic decline in the region’s water quality… [and] caused sustained saltwater intrusion in the watersheds, which severely affected wells used for irrigation,” wrote Christian Zlolniski, an assistant professor of anthropology at the University of Texas, Arlington, in a 2011 edition of the journal “Cultural Anthropology.”

Two decades ago, farmers chose between cleaning the groundwater or reduced pumping and lower yields. They chose the former. J. Alberto Torres, an agent of the Ensenada municipal water agency, CESPE, said the first desalination plant appeared in 1994. CONAGUA, the Mexican water agency, reports there are now 83.

Their size varies. “Some can fit inside a truck container that runs from 50 to 150 gallons a minute,” said William Hedrick, the operations vice president of the large BerryMex farms. These are the small ones. Larger ones produce “up to a plant that can range as high as 2,000 gallons a minute.” CONAGUA reports that 12,427,074 cubic meters, or nearly 8,400 acre-feet, is used annually on 12,000 acres of crops.

Subsidies Underwrite Energy-Intensive Desalination Process

In 2015, the governor of Baja California, Francisco “Kiko” Vega de Lamadrid, second from left, attended a ceremony in San Quintín marking federal investments as part of a “development program for arid zones.”
In 2015, the governor of Baja California, Francisco “Kiko” Vega de Lamadrid, second from left, attended a ceremony in San Quintín marking federal investments as part of a “development program for arid zones.” Government of Baja California

Both pumping and desalination plants require government permits and, often, subsidies. A scholar with contacts in the berry-growing industry said they confirm that the government subsidizes electricity for desalination.

Hugo Riemann, a senior researcher at the Colegio de la Frontera, said that he has repeatedly sought data on these subsidies — which his research showed can reduce electrical costs by two-thirds — but he has not been successful.

The groundwater supply here was never abundant. Before winter strawberries came in 1987, the big cash crop was tomatoes. Before that, people lived by fishing and growing onions, potatoes, carrots, and chili peppers.

“We know pumping and water consumption in the area puts a big burden on the aquifers,” said Hedrick, the BerryMex executive. More than 74,000 acres of land in the San Quintín valley had been devoted to the older version of local agriculture in the 1980s, he said. Now, with less water — and lower quality water — available for the strawberry and tomato crops, the land under cultivation is less than 20,000 acres.

“Our future in the region going forward is totally dependent on seawater desalination.”

BerryMex, which supplies Driscoll’s, the Watsonville, California berry giant, plans a new future. “We’re in the middle of an ambitious project” to desalinate seawater, Hedrick said. “We are in the process of installing a plant — it’s 70 percent complete — on the Pacific coast of the town of San Quintín.” He added, “Our future in the region going forward is totally dependent on seawater desalination.” The company aims to use solar power for the plant. A BerryMex spokeswoman declined to give the plant’s cost, saying company finances are private.

The proliferation of subsidies of the San Quintín valley wells, desalination plants and the electricity they need, “is as crazy as it looks,” said Jay Famiglietti, a scientist at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California. “But it seems to be the norm. We are seeing it all over the world: massive overdraft, lack of groundwater oversight, and the desire to find some mythical, unlimited future source of water.” To have Baja’s desalination plants subsidized, Famiglietti said, “is a good idea for the farmer. It’s a bad idea for the health of the aquifers.”

So BerryMex is turning to the sea. Leopoldo Mendoza Espinoza, a professor at the Oceanographic Research Institute at the University of Baja California in Ensenada, said the BerryMex plant represents “the first time that seawater is being desalinated for agricultural purposes” in Mexico. There have been recent efforts to do the same in Spain. Correction

His reaction to the existing desalination of the groundwater is mixed. “I don’t like natural systems being depleted for any purpose...” But, “it is really hard to argue against the number of jobs produced, and the wages they pay.” An alternative, reusing wastewater, wouldn’t work, he said. “I’m a very big advocate of wastewater reuse, like they do in Israel. But really there is no large urban area in San Quintín that would produce enough reclaimed water for irrigation.”

Increased Berry Production Brings More Workers – and a Growing Population Burden

For months in 2015, workers staged a strike over wages and living conditions. One irony highlighted during the unrest: in a place whose economy depends on water and migrants, there is clean water for crops, but not for all workers.

The area’s misfortune is a fragile groundwater supply. Its good fortune is its proximity to the United States. About 180 miles up the road is the border where strawberries turn to gold.

As the valley’s crop yields grow, so does the number of farm workers. Many are from Oaxaca, near the Guatemalan border. They were an itinerant labor force, but many now live permanently in towns like Camalú, Vicente Guerrero, and San Quintín. In 2010, the population of the town of San Quintín was 9,492, double the 1990 total of 4,374.

Workers are employed by big operations like BerryMex and Los Pinos, or by mid-sized farms. For months in 2015, workers staged a strike over wages and living conditions. One irony highlighted during the unrest: in a place whose economy depends on water and migrants, there is clean water for crops, but not for all workers.

More than 95 percent of the water in the valley goes for irrigation, the Mexican government reports. Academic researchers at COLEF put the national average at about 77 percent. The population of the entire valley jumped to 92,177 people in 2010, up from 38,151 in 1990, according to a 2014 paper done by Marie Laure Coubès, Laura Velasco and Zlolniski.

A truck making domestic water deliveries.
Trucks carrying fresh water, for a price, roam the highway. Felicity Barringer

In 2010 in the town of San Quintín, COLEF reported, using state data, 1,667 households – comprising 17.6 percent of the population — had no fresh water piped into their homes. Trucks carrying fresh water, for a price, roam the highway.

Three years ago, strikers demanded desalinated water for people. Now a consortium consisting of an American company, RWL Water Group, and two Mexican partners is building $32 million new desalination plant to serve residents.

The growing harvest, the increase in workers and the strike are the culmination of 24 years of desalination. The first plant was built in 1994, Torres said. With it began this cycle: Desalination plants clean brackish groundwater, which means more pumping. Which means saltier groundwater. The level of dissolved solids in seawater is 34,000 parts per million. Hedrick said that the levels in at least one of the San Quintín basins exceed 10,000 ppm. For strawberries, irrigation water should not exceed 450 ppm, more than 2,000 ppm is ruinous.

Salinity levels for different water types

Using some of the techniques adopted by Driscoll’s Berries near the central California coast, San Quentín Farmers work to conserve water. They use drip irrigation and some berries now grow in high cylindrical plastic greenhouses — Hedrick calls them “tunnels” — that cover fields with tightly bunched rows of off-white fabric. “Equipped with sophisticated irrigation, microclimate control, and fertilization systems, production in such shielded environments requires less water… and generates higher yields and better quality crops,” wrote Zlolniski.

Shielding the strawberries reduces water use.

Covering the strawberries reduces water use. Alan Harper via Flickr

There are two ways to see the transformation of the valley. Said Sárah Martínez, the COLEF dean, “If you ask people now living in San Quintín, they’d say it’s for the good. They don’t have fresh water but they have a lot of other things. If you go to the regional level, the state of Baja would say it’s good because it creates value.” Referring to politicians’ terms of office here, she added, “the government is here for six years. It doesn’t care what happens in 20 years’ time.”

“What they are buying is social stability. They are buying lower unemployment levels.” Part of the cost is creating harmful, concentrated brine which, if dumped in the ocean, contaminates marine ecosystems.

She cares. “The problems they are building for the middle term are much bigger than the short-term problems they are solving. But how do you make people have a long-term view?”

Seth M. Siegel, who wrote “Let There Be Water,” a 2015 overview of Israeli water systems, explained that governments subsidize desalination because “what they are buying is social stability. They are buying lower unemployment levels.” Part of the cost is heavy energy use and creating harmful, concentrated brine which, if dumped in the ocean, contaminates marine ecosystems.

Dumping brine is bad enough. But, Siegel said, compared to the energy drain of a seawater desalination plant, “The idea of allowing an aquifer to become saline is a far greater threat to the environment. Even with a big [ocean] desalination plant, the amount of energy needed … and fish problems is all modest, compared to the catastrophic effect of Baja aquifers being ruined.”

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Corrections

An earlier edition of this story suggested that Mexico’s use of seawater desalination for agricultural purposes might be the first time anywhere. We have learned that similar efforts are underway in Spain. Go to sentence

 

 

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Local Resistance to Native Tribes’ Push to Change Two Names on Map of Yellowstone National Park A geologist and a soldier, one of whom is said to have advocated for the “extermination” of native people and the other of whom has been a war crimes in an Indian massacre, both are memorialized in the park, by Hayden Valley and Mount Diane. Tribal groups petitioned the U.S. Board of Geographic Names for a change; local county commissioners are pushing back. WyoFile

New Focus on Small Farmworker Communities’ Bad Drinking Water. California's Central Valley is home to 19 percent of food production in the world, but about 100,000 of its residents have lived without clean drinking water for decades, and a million may do so today. Two audio reports look at the reasons, the cost of solving the problem permanently by filtering toxins out of tap water, and the reli-ance to date on indifferent stop-gap solutions. KCET Podship Earth

Why Are Environmental Groups so White, and What Can Be Done About It? A 2014 report found that ethnic minorities do not exceed 16% of board members and or staff of environmental organizations. A similar 2018 report found that of 2,057 organizations that volunteer their data, 80 percent of board members and 85 percent of staff are white. While some institutions are trying to increase diversity, the statistics are slow to change. Environmentalists of color like Eddie Love and Queta González say organizations must commit to systemic change and changing their own internal cultures. Ensia

May 8, 2018

Study Finds Mega-Storms Will Become Increasingly Common for California. Extreme weather swings will occur more frequently as global warming raises sea levels and puts more water vapor in the air, according to a new study published in Nature Climate Change. It suggests that the drought-to-flood weather patterns the state has experienced in recent years indicates a growing risk for more turbulent weather ahead. San Jose Mercury News

Hawaii May Ban Sunscreens Containing Chemicals That Hurt Marine Environment. After years of advocacy by local groups, Hawaiian lawmakers have passed a measure to ban the sale of sunscreens with the chemicals oxybenzone and octynoxate. The risk of these chemicals has often been overlooked, but they have been shown to wash off in the ocean and threaten local marine life and ecosystems, particularly coral reefs. Should Gov. David Ige sign the bill, Hawaii would become the first state banning such products to protect marine ecosystems. Washington Post

Oregon Health Department Says Air Near The Dalles Is Safe, Despite the Odor. For several years, residents living near the Amerities railroad tie plant in The Dalles have voiced concern over the stench apparently a result of the plant’s chemical activities. The plant uses a creosote mixture to treat the wooden ties, which emits several substances called polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) that, in high levels, are known to cause cancer and other health problems. While the air does not pose these risks, according to the report, it may still cause reactions in some people. KGW TV

NIMBYism and the Environment: Opponents of Housing Development for Homeless Cite Environmental Law to Shut Down Project. The Los Angeles development’s would-be neighbors, the Rosadas, have filed a lawsuit claiming that the city violated the California Environmental Quality Act when it approved an environmental report prepared for the city by consultants. The land to be developed apparently sits over an abandoned oil well, causing concerns over remaining contaminants in the soil. While experts conducted extensive studies on the land before the housing plan, the Rosadas insist the dangers to the environment still exist. Los Angeles Times

An Unusual Alliance: Washington Farm Groups Joins Cattle Association and EPA in an Environmental Suit. The Washington Farm Bureau succeeded in overcoming, for the moment, a state court decision that blocked them from intervening in an environmental organization’s lawsuit. The suit, by Northwest Environmental Advocates, alleges federal and state regulators aren’t protecting waterways from agriculture and required buffers to keep out runoff are inadequate. The Bureau has been concerned that an eventual decision might hurt agricultural interests, and wanted a seat at the table. Capital Press

April 20, 2018

Las Vegas by the Sea? Desert City Thinks About Desalination. With a new report predicting the Nevada city will outgrow its water supply within 20 years, Bronson Mack, a spokesman for the Southern Nevada Water Authority said recently, "Certainly desalination might be part of Southern Nevada's water portfolio at some point in the future. He added, "it could be something that happens within the next 20 or 30 years." Water Deeply

Once Again, Water Is For Fighting Over: the Central Arizona Project Is Accused of Unfairly Manipulating its claims on the Colorado River. Four states from the Upper Basin have joined Denver's water utility to accuse the Arizona agency of seeking to avoid the kind of cutbacks that could be imposed on other river users, In the throes of an 18-year drought, with Lake Mead's levels projected to decline further, the states risk losing their decade-old spirit of cooperation. John Fleck/Inkstain Denver Post

Protecting Hawaii's Reefs Means Cutting Tropical Fish Collection. That's the impact of a ruling by federal judges in the 1st Circuit Court. The court voided all 131 outstanding aquarium permits issued by the state of Hawaii, blocking the harvest of a quarter-million fish annually. This ruling blocking recreational harvesting of tropical fish comes on the heels of a Hawaii Supreme Court ruling last fall, which held that all commercial aquarium collection permits in the state had been issued illegally. Hawaii's conservation groups.have been fighting to protect the reefs and marine wildlife. Wisconsin Gazette

If Mojave Desert Groundwater Is Sent to Cities, Can Bonanza Spring Survive? Yes, say studies by Cadiz Inc., the company selling the groundwater. No, says a new study, which links the spring — the biggest in the southeastern Mojave — to the same deep pool of groundwater from which Cadiz plans to pump 16 million gallons annually. Andy Zdon, a hydrogeologist, determined that Bonanza Spring seems to have a "hydraulic connection" to the deep aquifer Cadiz will use. "The spring is going to be highly susceptible to drawdown from the pumping," he said. "It would likely dry up." Desert Sun

Wyoming Area Set Aside for Species in a Collaborative Process Now May Be Leased. County commissioners in the southwestern section of the state object to the fact local Bureau of Land Management officials have been stripped of their ability to postpone leasing decisions, while examining environmental effects. They fear that the new policy, removing decision-making to the bureau's Washington, offices threatens the 522,236 acres of the Greater Little Mountain Area — and the work of a years-long collaborative effort — to optimize the area's management. Proposed leases would allow drilling along a 150-mile mule deer migration route. WyoFile

To Thrive, the Conservation Movement Needs Buy-In by People of Color. But this video report on the fraught history of the National Park Service and non-white visitors shows that if people of color need to learn more about the value of parks, parks need to know more about people of color. Grist

Graphics & the West

 

Recent Center News

Sep 14 2018 | Out West student blog
“With the general election approaching,” writes the Center’s summer research fellow Benek Robertson, “I hoped to highlight specific policy areas that could influence the general election and California politics for years to come.”
Sep 13 2018 | Center News
Beyond her accomplishments at Water in the West and Stanford, Newsha Ajami has also shown an intense dedication to developing and mentoring the generation of scientists, engineers, and policymakers following in her footsteps.
Sep 12 2018 | Out West student blog
“I’ve come to recognize the value of rephotography as tool to analyze environmental change through time,” writes San Francisco Esturary Institute intern Nick Mascarello.