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Putting a Tempest into a Teapot: Can California Better Use Winter Storms to Refill its Aquifers?

Felicity Barringer
Jun 4 2019

With new rules coming into effect, farmers and municipalities using groundwater must either find more water to support the aquifers or take cropland out of use. To ease the pain, engineers are looking to harness an unconventional and unwieldy source of water: the torrential storms that sometimes blast across the Pacific Ocean and soak California.

A “groundwater replenishment facility” run by the Coachella Valley Water District, photographed in 2014.

A “groundwater replenishment facility” run by the Coachella Valley Water District, photographed in 2014. California Department of Water Resources
 

By Felicity Barringer

The general long-term forecast for California as climate change intensifies: more frequent droughts, intermittently interrupted by years when big storms bring rain more quickly than the water infrastructure can handle.

This bipolar weather will have profound implications for the state’s $50 billion agriculture industry and the elaborate network of reservoirs, canals, and aqueducts that store and distribute water. A system built for irrigation and flood protection must adapt to accommodate more conservation. “The effects of climate change are necessitating wholesale changes in how water is managed in California,” the state Department of Water Resources wrote in a June, 2018 white paper.

During droughts, farmers and municipalities pumped groundwater to augment sparse surface supplies. After nearly a century of heavy use, many aquifers are badly depleted. And California’s five-year-old law regulating groundwater basins is nearing a moment of truth: in 2020, sustainability plans are due from agencies managing critically depleted aquifers. They must either find more water to support the aquifers or take cropland out of use. The law – the Sustainable Groundwater Management Act, or SGMA – is beginning to bite. A 2019 study from the Public Policy Institute of California predicted that at least 500,000 acres of farmland will eventually be idled.

Map: Groundwater overdraft in the San Joaquin Valley
Sources: PPIC (groundwater overdraft), California DWR (water district boundaries); Natural Earth Data;   Geoff McGhee/Bill Lane Center for the American West

To ease the pain, engineers are looking to harness an unconventional and unwieldy source of water: the torrential storms that sometimes blast across the Pacific Ocean and soak California. “We need to capture the atmospheric rivers,” said Tim Quinn, the former director of the Association of California Water Agencies. But, he added, “We don’t have the right conveyance facilities. There’s not enough storage to capture the atmospheric rivers.” Quinn wants to capture stormwater and divert it to aquatic “parking lots,” as he calls them, where water can trickle back into depleted aquifers. This serves several ends: restoring a depleted natural resource, reducing land subsidence and providing for future water supply.

After passage of the law, groups including state and local water agencies, nonprofits, farmers, and agricultural groups like the Almond Board, are pushing to increase opportunities for recharge. “SGMA is a huge driver,” said Ashley Boren, executive director of Sustainable Conservation, a nonprofit working with farmers and local water agencies around the state. “There is a much greater interest in recharge than there was pre-SGMA.”

In the Tulare basin in the south, irrigation districts have long directed water onto special fields designed to allow it to percolate swiftly down and recharge aquifers. Now, “instead of sticking with the original recharge plans, we are aggressively recharging,” said Aaron Fukuda, general manager of the Tulare Irrigation District. “If someone can point to a hole one foot by one foot by one foot, I’ll go and put water in it.”

“Instead of sticking with the original recharge plans, we are aggressively recharging. If someone can point to a hole one foot by one foot by one foot, I’ll go and put water in it.”

Boren’s colleague at Sustainable Conservation, Daniel Mountjoy, said more than 120 million acre-feet of groundwater “has been pumped out of California aquifers” in the Central Valley in the last 70 or 80 years. He added, “I think of it as a giant underground reservoir that has already been built.” If you think about the cost of building one reservoir” — and the cost of environmental permitting – “why would we do that when we have access to 120 million acre-feet of capacity?”

“If you think about the cost of building one reservoir, why would we do that when we have access to 120 million acre-feet of capacity?”

Making the Central Valley Flood Again

How to tap into the atmospheric rivers? Ask Don Cameron, of Helm, who manages the Terranova Farm on the North Fork of the Kings River. He has flooded his vineyards since 2011. He has invested $14 million – $5 million from a DWR grant and another $9 million from Terranova – in diversion structures that will increase the amount he can recharge into the Kings aquifer’s sub-basin from 14 cubic feet per second to 500 cfs, or 1,000 acre-feet per day. (An acre-foot equals about 326,000 gallons; average California households use up to an acre-foot a year.)

For 38 years, Cameron has managed the farm, which grows 25 different crops, from tomatoes and garlic to wine grapes and, most recently, almond trees. “I noticed some time ago that the water table was declining two feet a year,” he said. “We realized we needed to do something.” His initial efforts to build recharge infrastructure – a pipe, a canal, and a spot designated for recharge – expanded nine years ago when he got a $75,000 grant from the federal Agriculture Department’s Natural Resources Conservation Service. This let him monitor “whether we could do groundwater recharge on working landscapes” – flooding his fields, both those fallowed and those where permanent crops, like grapevines, grew.

“We started flooding the wine grapes. We kept the water on from February to late June. The neighbors thought we were crazy, that we were ruining our grapes.” He wasn’t. Now he floods not only vineyards but nut trees. He works with DWR, promising to take excess water in flood years to prevent downstream flooding and has set aside 400 acres as a permanent recharge site and 1,200 acres more for seasonal recharge

Flooded wine grapes at Don Cameron's farm on the north fork of the Kings River.
Flooded wine grapes at Don Cameron's farm on the north fork of the Kings River   Terranova Farm

His new system includes a large structure with gates that open to let water out of the north fork of the Kings River to a canal and the large pumping station to extract the surface water from the canal, plus a structure with gates that open to let water out of four new 72-inch pipes and into a canal, headed for recharge areas. He expects to be able to recharge at a rate of 500 cubic feet per second, which would equal 1,000 acre-feet a day, into the depleted aquifer. “The storage capacity beneath our feet is between 2 and 3 million acre-feet,” he said. “We have huge potential under our feet.”

“The storage capacity beneath our feet is between 2 and 3 million acre-feet. We have huge potential under our feet.”

He’s not alone. Anthea Hansen, general manager of the Del Puerto Water District, also wants to use flood irrigation to tap into atmospheric rivers; her district partners with another on a $2 million pilot project to recharge aquifers. Aaron Fukuda in Tulare helps operate a district using part of a $1.95 million federal grant to build a new recharge basin and study ways to expand existing recharge facilities. In the wet year of 2017, his district provided cheap water to farmers willing to put it back in the aquifer. But for an individual farmer, creating a recharge basin could be costly. Counting the price of land, engineering and excavation costs, a pipeline to move the water, and legal costs, a one-acre recharge project can cost $100,000, Fukuda estimates.

For agencies or individuals seeking to create new recharge basins, a new Stanford study offers a tool. The study, done by Rosemary Knight, an Earth Sciences professor, and a former Ph.D. student Ryan Smith — now an assistant professor at the Missouri University of Science and Technology — can help those building recharge ponds avoid the problems that plague the delivery system of the Friant-Kern Canal. Over-pumping made the land below it subside, torquing the structure and reducing its capacity. The study shows how a combination of satellite and aerial remote sensing, which map the underground sand and clay layers, can be used to predict how recharge can reduce subsidence. Combining the data sources allows creation of maps of the link between recharge — or continued groundwater pumping — and subsidence.

Recharge operations are nothing new; dedicated basins have dotted the San Joaquin Valley and the Sacramento Valley for years. Kern County’s Rosedale-Rio Bravo Water Storage District dates to 1959. Such operations helped raise the total of water recharged for the San Joaquin Valley to 6.5 million acre-feet in 2017 — a year, like the current one, soaked by atmospheric rivers. But the total amount of inflow to surface waters was closer to 30 million acre-feet, PPIC reported. While the volume of rain and the volume of recharge were exceptional, researchers say more recharge was possible. An annual average of about 500,000 acre-feet of recharge potential is available – about a quarter of the average annual groundwater deficit from over-pumping.

Volume of Groundwater Recharged in Surveyed Districts, 2017

Following the extremely wet winter of 2016-17, the Public Policy Institute of California (PPIC) collected recharge statistics from 46 water districts in the San Joaquin Valley. They found that dedicated recharge basins stored the largest amount of water.

In Acre-Feet of Water

Source: Public Policy Institute of California

“It’s not about big infrastructure; it’s about big collaboration” among private, public and nonprofit interests.

The state Department of Water Resources has a program devoted to improving on-farm recharge called Flood Managed Aquifer Recharge, or FloodMAR. Kamyar Guivetchi at DWR said they are working with the Merced Irrigation District to find out how much water could be recharged on farmlands in the Merced River watershed. Beyond that, he said, “We want to broaden the footprint” of new projects. The obstacles he sees goes beyond infrastructure. “It’s not about big infrastructure; it’s about big collaboration” among private, public and nonprofit interests.

Buzz Thompson, a Stanford law professor, focuses on the problem of moving the water. “The bottom line is that in the really wet years, we do not have the ability to store all the water that is available,” he said. Legal obstacles include the 120-year-old system of established individual rights to specific quantities of water. These must be met before the excess can be taken for recharge. So must requirements for environmental water deliveries ensuring fish get enough water. Most problematic: “Right now the greatest amount of surface water is available north of the Bay Delta and some of the best storage sites are south of the Delta,” he said. As long as the Delta is a transportation bottleneck, that limits the amount that can be stored.”

A Hitch: Who Owns the Recharged Water?

One incentive nudging farmers to do recharge is the knowledge that in dry years they will have access to the water they deposited in wet years. Irrigation districts and groundwater sustainability agencies don’t have a common approach to the question of credit. “With SGMA, each agency is going to establish its own rules,” said Mountjoy of Sustainable Conservation. “Does it belong to the farmer or the irrigation district that has a right to send it to the farmer?”

One school of thought favors collective ownership. “The water district has a right to take that water – it remains the irrigation district’s, for the benefit of all users,” Mountjoy said. A second option is “give the farmer the right to capture it and sell it. … They paid to put it in the ground. It’s now theirs. They could pump it out of the ground in a dry year or sell it to a neighbor. You basically create a water market.”

Kern County’s Semitropic Water Storage District practices a variant of this. “Our farmers can bank” recharged water “under the district’s established program. They have a bank account for their use,” said Jason Gianquinto, the district’s general manager. “We haven’t decided if they can do anything other than keep it for their own use. I can’t say you can move water outside our district to another area.”

Another Tactic: Releasing Water from Reservoirs When a Storm Nears

One way to capture more of the atmospheric rivers is allowing dams to release reservoir water in anticipation of a storm. The Army Corps of Engineers, which operates the reservoirs, has strict rules on how much water must be held and when it can be released. Now the Corps is working with tools developed by the Scripps Institute of Oceanography at the University of California at San Diego that facilitate what are called Forecast-Informed Reservoir Operations.

The Turlock Irrigation District uses the tools. “In 2017, when we had an excess amount of water, we were able to know what was coming. We could start making pre-flood releases,” said Josh Weimer, the district’s government affairs manager. The advance releases, some of which could be recharged, meant the 2017 flooding at its height was 25 percent of the flooding caused by similarly strong storms two decades earlier.

Across California’s farm country, the hard reality of a future without guaranteed access to groundwater is sinking in. Jerry Gragnani, a neighbor of Don Cameron’s who is 70 years old, recently sold 8,000 acres of his farm, keeping 3,000 acres for permanent crops like nut trees. “There’s no future without recharge,” he said. “I don’t think there’s a farmer around here that doesn’t realize that. We know if you don’t recharge the water, it’s going to run out. Once the aquifer is closed, it’s closed forever.” He added, “It’s a good time to get out.”

 

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Edited by Geoff McGhee.

 

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...& the Best

Western Articles and Media Elsewhere
Compiled by Felicity Barringer, Francisco L. Nodarse, Devon Burger, and Madison Pobis

Articles Worth Reading: June 24, 2020

Legislators United Around Sweeping Plans to Help Public Lands as Democrats and Republicans in large numbers voted to approve the measure. It does everything from shoring up the major federal conservation fund to putting billions aside to maintain and improve national parks, which have long been neglected. Two western Republican senators, Cory Gardner of Colorado and Steve Daines of Montana, were seen as major political beneficiaries of the legislation. San Jose Mercury News   CNN

Black Americans Account For Just Two Percent of National Park Visitors, and a Black writer who is immersed in America’s wild places believes “the great outdoor in the U.S. has never truly been a welcoming place for people of color.” Until the end of World War II, Jim Crow laws were in place in most parks; Black tourists once depended on The Negro Motorist Green Book for information on facilities near parks that served Black clientele. Now a digital version of the Green Book is being written, and hope is rising that people who felt excluded from the outdoors will now embrace it. National Geographic

Wave of Real Estate Sales in the Mountain West As City Dwellers seem to be fleeing the crowding in the midst of the pandemic. A surge of out-of-staters are buying homes in Montana, Wyoming and other parts of the Mountain West, according to real estate agents. Boise State Public Radio

Should We Use a New Word for What the Decline in Colorado River Flows Means? Scientists have decided the word drought doesn’t cut it anymore. Researchers covering the climate in the river basin argue that a drought is temporary, and a word like “aridification” would describe something permanent. The Revelator

By 2016 Coal Production in Wyoming Was Half Its 2008 Levels. The Pandemic Changed That Trend– For the Worse. Rather than moving away from coal as an economic base on a glidepath to a new economy over a deacde, coal communities could see their economies disappear much faster. “Basically the [Wyoming revenue] trend that’s happened here is a vertical-downward; there’s no slope, it’s just straight down,” said University of Wyoming energy economist Robert Godby. Wyofile

Texas Deciding Whether to Ban Flaring Natural Gas or simply to regulate it. The State’s Railroad Commission has authority over the oil and gas industry, and can use existing state laws to control flaring – the laws prohibit a “waste of natural resources.” But the agency issued 7,000 exceptions last year, up 27percent from the year before. Two new studies support a ban on routine flaring. E&E News

Want to Know Where Fish-ish Meals on Your Plate Will Be Coming From in coming decades? Check out this lab at the University of California Berkeley, which specializes in alt-meat. Hakai

Articles Worth Reading: June 8, 2020

Record-Setting Floods Have Re-ignited the Debate Over Damming Washington’s Chehalis River. Most proposals recommend the creation of a seasonal reservoir to moderate water flows, but they face criticism from environmental groups who argue that obstructing the waterway would hinder salmon breeding. Crosscut

New Revelations in the Enduring Mystery of Mount St. Helens’ Geology could help scientists better predict future eruptions. The volcano, known for its devastating 1980 eruption, has long puzzled vulcanologists due to its unique location away from large magma deposits. National Geographic

Has Legislative Inaction Left Oregon Vulnerable to the Coming Wildfire Season? Experts suggest drought conditions will exacerbate the fire risk, but efforts to address budget difficulties — the state faces over $80 million of outstanding fire-related debt — fell through after Republican lawmakers walked out of a session that pinned the worsening fire situation on climate change. The Oregonian

Federal Judges Across the West Set Back Trump’s Energy Agenda, delivering a series of rulings that cancelled oil and gas leases and required more thorough environmental analyses for such projects. Though energy industry allies have denounced the decisions as judicial activism, environmentalists suggest that the rulings will do little to deter the expansion of drilling projects in the region. Associated Press

More Than 100 Alaskan Communities Lost Access to Essential Deliveries when Rvan Air, the state’s largest regional airline, filed for bankruptcy last month. The announcement, delivered mere hours before service ended, left tribal coordinators scrambling to arrange alternate ways to supply their communities. Indian Country News

‘Glacier Mice’ Have Puzzled Geologists for Decades by Their Herd-like Movements. NPR’s Short Wave team spoke to experts to learn more about a strange phenomenon – the small balls of moss that dot glacial landscapes. NPR

Articles Worth Reading: May 26, 2020

Glacial Retreat in Alaska’s Prince William Sound Could Cause a Megatsunami, climate scientists warned last week. The glacier, subject to extensive calving thanks to climate change, could dislodge a massive slope of rock and dirt, spawning a wave hundreds of feet high that would destroy much of the heavily-touristed bay. Researchers have urged local authorities to set up monitoring to address the growing threat. The New York Times

Bureaucratic Mismanagement is Undermining Wildfire Preparedness in the face of the coronavirus epidemic. Wildland firefighting crews have received little guidance from their parent organizations, and are struggling to respond to the changing public health situation, raising alarm among firefighters and politicians alike. Grist

Questions About The BLM’s Billion-Dollar Plan to Curb Wild Horse Populations and protect rangeland. It is designed to promote sustainable grazing and envisions the capture of hundreds of thousands of horses over two decades. Some groups remain skeptical, however, arguing that the plan aims to assist cattle ranchers without establishing clear protections for wild horse populations. The Salt Lake Tribune

The Grand Canyon’s Inter-Tribal Working Group Renovated the Park’s Interpretive Sites as part of a broader effort to include indigenous histories in park curricula. Renovations at the Hopi Tower, aimed at preserving Hopi culture, could usher in a more harmonious working relationship between the Park Service and local groups. National Parks Conservation Association

A Lawsuit Brought Against the Federal Government by the Yurok Tribe Was Blocked when a federal court, which affirmed the government's decision to limit water flows on the Klamath River. Attorneys representing the Yurok had argued that diminished water flows would threaten Coho Salmon habitat near the river’s mouth. The ruling, a blow to Yurok efforts to preserve traditional salmon fishing, comes in the wake of mass fish die-offs due to bacterial infections. E&E News

The Hmong Flower Farmers of Seattle Adapt to Coronavirus Closures A long-time staple of the iconic Pike Place Market have drawn strength from their refugee experiences. The Seattle Times

Articles Worth Reading: May 11, 2020

A Series of Interstate Water Disputes Looms Over the Supreme Court. Texas v. New Mexico, an upcoming case on Pecos River floodwater storage, appears to be the first of a new breed of showdowns over water rights in the West. In the lineup for high court review is a separate case pitting Texas against New Mexico and Colorado over water distribution from the Rio Grande. The impact of climate change is being felt in all the rivers under dispute. E&E News

Bioluminescent Waves Marked the Reopening of California’s Beaches in the wake of coronavirus closures. The annual phenomenon, a result of phytoplankton blooms, was the most vibrant in decades, offering a welcome reprieve from the lockdown that has kept beaches off-limits for weeks. The Guardian

Bureaucratic Roadblocks Remain an Obstacle to Reparations Claims more than half a century after the end of nuclear testing in the West. Even as the legacy of radiation exposure continues to sicken downwind communities, relief under the Radiation Exposure Compensation Act — which is set to expire in 2022 — remains elusive for Indigenous families, who often lack the formal documents required to apply. High Country News

A Global Study Pinpointed the Colorado River Basin as One of the World's Most Vulnerable Agricultural Regions. Environmental scientists from Colorado State University, noting the risk to snowmelt posed by rising temperatures, found that decreased water availability could affect the food security of people dependent on crops grown with Colorado water, as well as two billion people worldwide. The Denver Post

Sightings of the Asian Giant Hornet in the Pacific Northwest Have Raised Fears that the invasive species could establish a foothold in the United States — and wipe out bee populations. The hornets, which had not previously been documented in the country, are known for their ferocious stings, and predilection for attacking bees. The New York Times

Lakota Activists Looking Toward the Next Battle to Protect Indigenous Land — in this case against the proposed Dewey-Burdock uranium mine. The Canadian-owned project in South Dakota’s Black Hills has stirred controversy from the start, owing to water-intensive mining practices, and the sacred history of the land it would cover. Activists hope that by continuing to draw out the legal battle over the mine’s permit, they can discourage investors from supporting construction — and set an important precedent for conservation efforts nationwide. Mother Jones

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Articles Worth Reading: April 27, 2020

Researchers at Arizona State University Begin to Track COVID-19 Outbreak Through Wastewater. A pilot study conducted in Tempe revealed that wastewater-based epidemiology can accurately and precisely identify clusters of infection among individuals for a fraction of the cost of traditional testing. Early results indicate that if implemented nationwide, the technique could screen as much as 70 percent of Americans, enabling a more efficient resolution to the current crisis. Eurekalert

The Southwest Is Suffering From the First Anthropogenic Megadrought on record. The drought, which has ravaged the region for two decades, is the second-worst in the last 1,000 years, according to extensive analysis of tree-ring data. Researchers believe that strict regulations on water usage are a first step towards coping with the crisis, but that without broader efforts to combat climate change, such droughts will become increasingly frequent and intense. The Washington Post

Farmworkers across the West Classified as Essential Workers but excluded them from aid payments. Roughly half of farmworkers are unauthorized and ineligible for stimulus checks; two-thirds remain uninsured even as their employers accept nearly ten billion in stimulus money earmarked for agriculture. The vast majority of ranchers and growers have failed to provide paid sick leave or best practice guidelines for their employees. Reveal News

Fieldwork Is on Hold as Environmental Scientists Follow Social Distancing Regulations. Projects requiring on-site data collection, like conservation efforts designed to reintroduce native species and track invasive ones, have been postponed indefinitely, and scientists fear that the resulting gaps in data could undermine decades of research. Crosscut

Biologists Fight Government Efforts to Remove Lynx Protections in the Pacific Northwest. A Washington state survey of lynx populations revealed that habitat destroyed by forest fires in 2018 has yet to be recolonized — and that warming temperatures create a vicious cycle in which that habitat becomes less suitable. Though the exact number of wild lynx in the region remains unknown, researchers believe that southern populations in Colorado, Montana, and Idaho could be wiped out without continued protection. The New York Times

A Report Attributing Kilauea’s 2018 Eruption to Rainfall Sent Shockwaves through the geology community. Using hundreds of years of historical data, vulcanologists at the University of Miami identified a link between heavy rain and volcanic activity. Other geologists, however, maintained that the eruption — the most explosive in the volcano’s recorded history — could not have been caused by rainfall alone. Scientific American

Amateur Botanists Discovered 10 Lost Apple Varieties in the Pacific Northwest as part of the Lost Apple Project’s ongoing effort to shed light on a lesser-known part of American history. The apple varieties, which were recovered from abandoned orchards across the region, could help restore early homesteaders' efforts to the historical record. Associated Press

Shale Oil Producers Across the West are Shuttering in the face of plummeting oil prices. A global surplus coupled with non-existent demand has sent crude oil prices to new lows, causing major producers to close fracking installations and sending thousands of family-owned operations into bankruptcy. The Guardian

Articles Worth Reading: April 14, 2020

Billions of Birds Could Die as the Trump administration moves to roll back the Migratory Bird Treaty Act. Bipartisan condemnation of the decision — which would reverse a hundred years of regulations — has failed to shake corporate support for the rule change. One industry leader suggested “the birds themselves are the actors.” Associated Press The Seattle Times

On the Navajo Nation, a Serious Spike in COVID-19 Deaths, as local officials scramble to respond. Authorities have enacted curfews, set up checkpoints, and airlifted medical equipment into rural communities as epidemiologists warn that risk factors — like limited access to running water, the large number of background health conditions, and multigenerational households — could exacerbate the disease’s spread and intensity in the region. The New York Times

Wildlife Is Rebounding in Yosemite amid the park's longest closure in modern history. Animal populations typically relegated to less-trafficked parts of the park are enjoying the lack of visitors, with hotel staff observing large increases in the numbers of bears, bobcats, and other predators. Los Angeles Times

Hunting in Wildlife Refuges Is Part of Federal Plans to Expand Recreational Access on two million-plus acres of federal land. The plans were unveiled during the Department of the Interior’s annual review. Fishing and hunting for once-protected species would be allowed in more than 100 national wildlife refuges that have been off-limits. Salt Lake Tribune

Farm-to-Table Supply Chains Have Come Undone n the wake of the coronavirus’s spread, sowing uncertainty among restaurant owners and farmers alike. Once an obscure pipe dream, the farm-to-table industry generated $12 billion in 2019; now, with restaurant, university, and corporate closures, demand has collapsed, and farmers are struggling to adapt. As individuals become the main supporters of local farms, the increase in labor-intensive packaging and distribution is crushing profits, and leaving some low-skilled workers behind. The New York Times

Arizona Is Sinking thanks to both rising temperatures and the exhaustion of groundwater resources. Scientists at the University of Arizona say that massive subsidence zones — fissures that swallow infrastructure and livestock — are appearing around the state, as hotter air evaporates groundwater and withers plants, making agriculture more water-intensive. And the problem will only get worse: “Even the most moderate warming projection" would cause an annual loss in groundwater volume equivalent to the contents of Lake Powell. High Country News

California Has Approved the Largest Dam Removal Project in history. PacifiCorp, which operates the four dams along the Klamath River that are set for removal, plans to transfer ownership to a nonprofit that will oversee the $450 million project. Local tribes cheered the decision, which ideally will restore the Klamath’s salmon runs. But landowners remain opposed, fearing the removal would lower property values. E&E News

Graphics & the West

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U.S. Conservation Easements

Conservation easements of various kinds cover more than 22 million acres of land in the United States, according to the National Conservation Easement Database, a public-private partnership. Take a look at our interactive map of nearly every conservation easement, with details on over 130,000 sites. View map »

 

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